For example, many bacteria accumulate anions of selenium or tellurium and reduce them to elemental selenium or tellurium, which is then deposited as a precipitate either on the cell surface or internally. 4(b) and 4(c). In fact, calculations show that at the dislocation core, the atoms undergo significant rearrangements or “reconstructions,” and are largely electrically inactive (with the exception of shallow electron and hole traps lying near the band edges) (Bigger et al. By convention, the resulting dislocations are referred to as β and α dislocations, respectively. Table 2. This is illustrated in Fig. 1992). 1314-13-2) is the most common Zn compound used in industry. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Bandgap reduction of approximately 45 meV has been observed in ordered InAs1−xSbx (x=0.4) (Kurtz et al. A perfect dislocation in the glide set is capable of dissociating into two partial dislocations via the reaction: These two partials bound an intrinsic stacking fault in the lattice, and have angles of 30° and 90° with respect to the dislocation-line direction. Your email address will not be published. The basic physical properties of InP are listed in Table 1. It is used in toothpaste to prevent bad breath and in shampoos to stop dandruff. Recently, it has been found that when E. coli is exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and sodium sulfide, it precipitates cadmium sulfide (CdS) as particles in the 2- to 5-nm size range. In other words, bacteria can “biosynthesize” semiconductor nanocrystals. Zinc is used in conjunction with copper, magnesium and aluminium in die casting and spin casting which is used in the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries. These unsatisfied or “dangling” bonds would be expected to introduce extra energy states into the bandgap. The left-hand column depicts the atom positions looking along the 〈110〉 direction, while the right-hand column shows the atom positions on the (11¯1) plane that is shaded in the left-hand column of images. Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4; commonly known as CZTS) is emerging as a photovoltaic material composed of elements that are nontoxic and abundant. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Zinc sulfide is used as a pigment for paints, oil cloths, linoleum, leather, and dental rubber, in white and opaque glass, plastics In the case of semiconductor materials, however, the high bonding strengths generally act to confine dislocations as straight lines along 〈110〉 type directions (u). In the range of practical interest, i.e. There is strong bonding within these pairs of {111} planes, with each arsenic atom bound to three gallium atoms in the nearest plane and one gallium atom in the next plane separated by the full bond length. This is the simplest crystal structure exhibiting such behavior. Commercially, sphalerite (Zn sulfide; CAS No. For those wondering why zinc sulfide is important, I will note that "a zinc-sulphide screen in vacuum" is specifically called out in the original Geiger and Marsden papers on … CZTS has a band gap of ∼1.4 eV, the ideal value for converting the Proposed core reconstructions for the 90° partial in silicon. Ordering occurs in InAs1−xSbx (x≈0.5) grown by vapor phase epitaxy techniques at lower temperatures. The specific heat of InP, expressed in J mol−1 k−1, is 45.3 at 300 k while in the range 298–900 k it can be determined by the relation 41+0.0146T Jmol−1K−1. When cadmium chloride and potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) were provided, a mixture of fluorescent nanocrystals of different sizes and colors made of CdTe was generated (Fig. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. Enhanced glutathione content allows the in vivo synthesis of fluorescent CdTe nanoparticles by, Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Fourth Edition), International Lead Zinc Study Group, 2013, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Dissociation pressure at the melting point. It is also used for developing the immune system of the human body. ♦ Zinc Sulphide Multispectral (ZnS) MSDS ZnS Multispectral (water-clear) is used for IR windows and lenses in the thermal band (8 to 14 μm) where maximum transmission and lowest absorption is required. Zinc is alloyed with copper to create brass. Selenium sulfide topical (for the skin) is used to treat dandruff, seborrhea, and tinea versicolor (a fungus that discolors the skin). Crystals of ZnS are used in lasers that operate in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum. (C) and (D) Particle sizes of samples from cells exposed to CdCl2 or CdCl2/K2TeO3, respectively. (A) UV-exposed cell suspensions of E. coli AG1/pCA24NgshA, untreated or exposed to CdCl2 or CdCl2/K2TeO3 (from left to right). Welding : It is used for welding purposes. It’s available in both prescription and OTC forms. 1992). It is yellow to red in appearance with a melting point of >1,100 C, a density of 5.42 g/cc, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 660 C. Torr at 660 C. Zinc (Zn) is an abundant metal, found in the Earth’s crust, with a myriad of industrial and biological uses. However, students of microbiology no longer need to feel left out. 7H 2 O, and is commonly called white vitriol; it occurs naturally as the mineral goslarite, and can be prepared by reacting zinc with sulfuric acid. Commercially, sphalerite (Zn sulfide; CAS No. However, so-called ‘’nanobacteria’’ are a mineral artefact (see Box 7.2). Two possible reconstructions of these bonds for the 90° partial dislocation in silicon are shown as Figs. This is a modified form of the diamond structure, in which the group IV semiconductors germanium and silicon crystallize. Purification and size determination of CdTe nanoparticles produced by E. coli. The group III and group V sublattices are translated by a distance (−14,−14,14)ao (where ao is the lattice parameter) with respect to each other. metals, the Burgers vector (b) of dislocations in the diamond cubic and zinc blende systems is the minimum lattice translation vector b=a/2〈11¯0〉, and their glide planes are the planes of widest separation, the {111} planes. Phage display libraries have been screened to find peptides capable of binding ZnS or CdS nanocrystals. (b) Double-period reconstruction. This article will give you the main uses of zinc in the world today. It has been shown that dislocations in diamond cubic and zinc blende materials are dissociated into partials, and that they glide in a dissociated state (Meingast and Alexander 1973). When the hybrid protein is assembled into the phage capsid, the inserted peptides are displayed on the outside of the phage particle. Zinc is mostly used as an anti-corrosive agent in other metal products. Selenium sulfide is a topical antifungal treatment that slows the growth of yeast on the scalp or body. It is also observed that the growth of bulk crystals along a 〈111〉 axis is strongly influenced by the orientation, [111] or [1―1―1―], of the seed crystal in contact with the melt. For zinc-blende crystals this depends on the polarization and average charge density, as well as on the interplanar spacing. Phage display yielded engineered versions of the M13 coat protein (protein VIII) with inserted peptides. Nanowire Assembly on Bacteriophage. The thermal expansion coefficient α is given in Table 2; it is interesting to note that it is negative between 15 and 80 k and that a minimum occurs at about 40 k. Above 300 k the value of α is constant at 4.56×10−6 k−1. For example, ZnS was bound by the peptide VISNHAGSSRRL and CdS by the peptide SLTPLTTSHLRS. From simple considerations, it would seem that at the termination of the extra planes at the dislocation core, one bond per atom site would be left unsatisfied (see Fig. Required fields are marked *, You can use these HTML tags and attributes
. These options are distinguished by the addition of a shorter flat on (011) [option 1] or (01―1) [option2]. Dislocations in diamond cubic materials are either pure screw in character (b‖u) or are 60° dislocations (i.e., b∧u=60°). TECHSPEC Zinc Sulfide Multispectral Windows are used in both visible and mid-wave or long-wave infrared sensor applications. Zinc is a metal element with the atomic number of 30 and the chemical symbol Zn. Zinc sulfate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency. (a) Unreconstructed core. Zinc is one of the most widely studied forms of acne treatment. The wafer surface is often deliberately misoriented from (100) by a few degrees, for example, to achieve improved epitaxy, and this is specified in a particular direction with respect to the flats. Zinc sulfide finds applications in the following: It is commonly used as a white pigment Detector of alpha-rays, which render it luminescent Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This acts as a reference to identify both the cleavage planes and the direction of the specific {111} planes. The strong electrostatic force exerted by the aligned polar bonding in the [111] direction makes cleavage more difficult in this plane. InP possesses only the piezoelectric tensor component e14. It is also used for developing the immune system of the human body. Silver sulfide is used in research and in membrane sensors in pharmaceuticals, but there aren't many other uses of this compound. Protein VIII of bacteriophage M13 was used for peptide insertion. In the presence of CdS crystals, a nanowire forms along the surface of the bacteriophage. It can be doped with copper to make it glow in the dark. E.A. This has considerable practical importance for the chemical processing of single-crystal wafers. It is normally found with other base metals such as copper and lead. 2 has an origin based on the gallium sublattice. Shop now with Edmund Optics! 1314-98-3) is the most important Zn ore, and Zn oxide (CAS No. Looking at the (110) projection of Fig. Organic Zn compounds are used as fungicides, topical antibiotics, and lubricants (Simon-Hettich et al., 2001). Zinc sulfate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. As a result, the mining industry has been able to reduce waste, as well as dangerous chemicals. The piezoelectrical effects are of importance for the study of transport properties of semiconductors, in particular at low temperature where the piezoelectric scattering may become the dominant lattice-scattering mechanism. In brief, stretches of DNA encoding a library of peptide sequences are engineered into the gene for a bacteriophage coat protein. The extra sequences are attached at either the C terminus or N terminus, where they do not disrupt normal functioning of the coat protein. Common zinc compounds found at hazardous waste sites include zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, and zinc sulfide. Zinc can be found naturally in the environment, foods, and water. When circular wafers are fabricated from the crystals, orientation flats are ground, cut, or cleaved onto the wafer periphery. Coating thickness is easier to control than in the hot-dip process because of the good relationship between electrical current and deposited zinc. Zinc oxide is used in making paints and rubber Zinc chloride is used as a fire retardant, a preservative for wood and deodorant Zinc sulfide is found in luminescent pigments, x-rays, TVs, and luminous paints Zinc sulfide crystals are Zinc oxide is also used in rubber to protect it from UV radiation. These are singly bonded and have equal numbers of group III and group V within the planes, and hence no net charge. Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) General Information Zinc selenide is a chemical compound with a chemical formula of ZnSe. 1314-13-2) is the most common Zn compound used in industry. 1989, Kurtz et al. Their supposed replication was due to the fact that certain minerals can act as nuclei for further crystallization. Zinc is used as a protective coating for other metals, in dye casting and the construction industry, in noncorrosive alloys, and in brass. (B) Purified fractions exposed to UV light. It is also a wide-bandgap semiconductor and an efficient photocatalyst. (For color version of this figure, the reader is referred to the online version of this book), Defects Related to Zinc Blende and Wurtzite Phases in III-Nitride Heterostructures, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Indium–arsenic–antimony Materials and Devices, From Monrás JP et al. sublattices, one composed of group III atoms only, the other of group V atoms. The conventional nomenclature for the group III {111} plane is {111}A and for group V, {111}B. At very low temperatures, the thermal conductivity of InP rises as T3; between 10 and 20 k it passes through a maximum; and above 60 k it decreases at a rate inversely proportional to Tn, where 1.4
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