Click here to see list of references, authorities, sources and geographical terms as used in this glossary. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. If you're studying chemistry or just want to build something, you may encounter gypsum, which is a white, chalky (or sometimes colorless) mineral used to make plaster of Paris and other building materials such as cement. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Thus clinker, a rock-hard substance, is made. Most R values for elements varied only slightly from 1.0, meaning no treatment effect. Cement Manufacturing Industries in the World. See the full definition for gypsum in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Nglish: Translation of gypsum for Spanish Speakers, Britannica English: Translation of gypsum for Arabic Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about gypsum. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. One of gypsum’s main advantages is its ability to reduce aluminum toxicity, which often accompanies soil acidity, particularly in subsoils. How much would one mole of gypsum weigh? Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Q2: Level 1 (U6, L.G. Although schwertmannite occurs in acidic waters and soils and commonly the initial precipitate from AMD, it is difficult to identify because of its poor crystallinity and the almost invariable presence of associated Fe oxyhydroxides and jarosite, but numerous occurrences have been reported in the literature. Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. nH2O, may be the most common direct precipitate of Fe from acidic effluents at pH 2–4 (Bigham and Nordstrom, 2000). Its structure is described by Bigham et al. The ferrite undergoes two progressive reactions with the gypsum: Type K: PC clinker + expansive clinker + gypsum (or gypsum-anhydrite mixture) The expansive clinker in Type K cement is fired separately. The same mineral was almost simultaneously reported to occur as bluish coatings on weathered waste rocks and in stream sediments at two former mines in Northern Italy (Dinelli et al., 1998). It occurs chiefly in sedimentary deposits and is used to make plaster of Paris and fertilizers, and in the building industry. 2 : drywall. Based on these experimental results the thermal reaction of a gypsum-protected steel column in fire is modeled for the four types of gypsum. The composition deviates from the ideal formula in terms of the proportions of Fe, OH, and SO4. The presence of gypsum in cement slows the reaction of the C3A. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012369396900280X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857092571500048, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857096821500191, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444533494002806, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845699550500049, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845699550500037, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526002485, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080552941000295, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080959757009050, Removing gypsum from construction and demolition waste (C&DW), Handbook of Recycled Concrete and Demolition Waste, Polymers for a Sustainable Environment and Green Energy, Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Metallic, Ceramic and Polymeric Biomaterials, Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), Dutrizac and Kaiman, 1976; Majzlan and Myneni, 2005, Bigham and Nordstrom, 2000; Loan et al., 2004, Peretyazhko et al., 2009; Regenspurg et al., 2004, Bigham et al., 1996; Peretyazhko et al., 2009; Schwertmann and Carlson, 2005, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. Agricultural Gypsum (Calcium Sulfate – CaSo 4) Building more productive soil naturally. Is gypsum a cost-effective solution for your calcium and sulfur needs? The principal ore mineral of Pb is galena [PbS], and the predominant sulfates derived from it are anglesite [PbSO4] and plumbojarosite. As Nick Squires reports for the Telegraph, the documents show that Leonardo purchased large quantities of, For a geologist, the desert is a treasure trove, such as glistening, However, joint compound dust is a respiratory irritant that contains super-fine, The chamber in New Mexico, with its 20-foot glittering, An easy one-mile hike from the parking area will take you over a small field of, White Sands National Park, our latest, protects most of the largest pure, Post the Definition of gypsum to Facebook, Share the Definition of gypsum on Twitter. When mixed with water gypsum dissolves and reacts with C3A to form ettringite ($\ce{3CaO.Al2O3.3CaSO4.32H2O}$). Calcination: Roasting: Calcination is a process in which ore is heated in the absence of air or air might be supplied in limited quantity: Roasting involves heating of ore lower than its … Detailed studies of the oxidation of pyrite and pyrrhotite indicate that schwertmannite is not an early formed mineral, and the occurrences suggest an origin in which the requisite Fe and SO4 have undergone solubilization, transportation, and subsequent precipitation rather than maintaining an intimate association with precursor sulfides. 156 g C. 147 g D. Learn a new word every day. It is extracted either by quarry­ ing or mining. Send us feedback. Definition Colloid: A particle, either mineral or organic, with a diameter of 0.1 to 0.001 µm. (2004) did not find any evidence for an akaganeite-like structure. Gypsum Gypsum is chemically CaSO 4.2H 2 O and is a white mineral that occurs extensively in natural deposits. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? It must be ground before it is applied to the soil. It is used in manufacturing plasterboard, cement, and fertilizers. Gypsum … 1. a common white or colorless mineral (hydrated calcium sulphate) used to make cements and plasters (especially plaster of Paris) Familiarity information: GYPSUM used as a noun is very rare. Because of their small size, colloids go into suspension in a … Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. This compound is however responsible for the long-term strength of portland cement concrete. Response ratios were calculated for crop yields and chemistries of soil, plants, and water. Accessed 11 Jan. 2021. Instead, the TEM observations suggested that the schwertmannite whiskers possess structures similar to maghemite and highly disordered ferrihydrite. A soft white or grey mineral consisting of hydrated calcium sulphate. Gypsum occurs as individual blade-shaped crystals or as massive beds in sedimentary rocks. Agricultural gypsum works as a soil amendment, conditioner and fertilizer to improve the soil. 172 g B. Meta-Analysis of Gypsum Effects on Crop Yields and Chemistry of Soils, Plant Tissues, and Vadose Water at Various Research Sites in the USA. gypsum (noun) a common white or colorless mineral (hydrated calcium sulphate) used to make cements and plasters (especially plaster of Paris) The top three cement producers of the world as recorded in 2010 are the USA, China, and India. Crop yields showed both positive and negative results to gypsum treatments. ‘Quartz is the dominant mineral in veins in siliceous rocks, calcite in limestones, and … The formula for gypsum is: CaSO 4 2H 2 O. An unusual sink for Cu and Al is the mineral hydrowoodwardite [Cu1 −xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2(H2O)n], recently discovered as a supergene product at several old mines in Saxony, Germany (Witzke, 1999). It occurs chiefly in sedimentary deposits and is used to make plaster of Paris and fertilizers, as well as in the building industry. It has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Kost D, Ladwig KJ, Chen L, DeSutter TM, Espinoza L, Norton LD, Smeal D, Torbert HA, Watts DB, Wolkowski RP, Dick WA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanodiffraction studies of Loan et al. Applied in a plastic state (with water), it sets and hardens by chemical recombination of the gypsum … Its transformation rate to goethite increases with an increase in pH (Regenspurg et al., 2004) and temperature (Schwertmann and Carlson, 2005), whereas it decreases with increases in the concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon (Knorr and Blodau, 2007). Schwertmannite typically occurs as ‘hedgehog’-type rounded aggregates with filamentous or needlelike whiskers (Bigham and Nordstrom, 2000; Loan et al., 2004) or spheroidal aggregates (Peretyazhko et al., 2009; Regenspurg et al., 2004) that are typically less than a micrometer. Gypsum is the name given to a mineral categorized as calcium sulfate mineral, and its chemical formula is calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4 ⋅ 2H 2 O. Gypsum is soluble in water to the extent of about one-fourth of 1 percent and is, therefore, a direct source of soluble calcium. It is the mineral used to represent a hardness of 2 on the Mohs scale. Regenspurg et al. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'gypsum.' Recently, Fernandez-Martinez et al. Gypsum amendments can also improve the physical and chemical properties of soils, thus reducing erosion losses of soils and nutrient concentrations (especially Gypsum can improve some acid soils even beyond what lime can do for them, which makes it possible to have deeper rooting with … 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1. (2010) proposed a structural model similar to the original akaganeite-like structure having two sulfate molecules per unit cell where one sulfate occurs as an inner-sphere and the other as an outer-sphere complex within the akaganeite tunnel structure. 6) A. (2004) describe schwertmannite as the first mineral that forms from oxidation and hydrolysis of Fe(ii)SO4 solutions at pH 5–6. 1 : a widely distributed mineral consisting of hydrous calcium sulfate that is used especially as a soil amendment and in making plaster of paris. Definition of calcined gypsum Gypsum partially dehydrated by means of heat, having the approximate chemical formula, CaSO 4 .�H 2 O . Gypsum: Knight K S, Stretton I C, Schofield P F (1999) Temperature evolution between 50 K and 320 K of the thermal expansion tensor of gypsum derived from neutron powder diffraction data Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 26 477-483: 1999: 0: 293: 0017897: Gypsum In other words, what is its molar mass? Gypsum plaster, white cementing material made by partial or complete dehydration of the mineral gypsum, commonly with special retarders or hardeners added. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes. 2. Gypsum is a moderately soluble source of the essential plant nutrients, calcium and sulfur, and can improve overall plant growth. “Gypsum.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gypsum. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Natural Gypsum Gypsum is a mineral found in natural rock. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. Schwertmannite is metastable, and it transforms to goethite (Bigham et al., 1996; Peretyazhko et al., 2009; Schwertmann and Carlson, 2005) and to jarosite at low pH (Majzlan and Myneni, 2005). The calcium sulfate used in gypsum is a hydrate (meaning that water is absorbed into the sulfate). A mixture of lime or gypsum, sand, and water, sometimes with fiber added, that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls and ceilings. Delivered to your inbox! Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Definition of gypsum. It is composed of a mixture of Alite, Belite, Ferrite, anhydrite and Klein compound, which has the formula C 4 A 3 S. What made you want to look up gypsum? Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Gypsum board is the technical product name used by manufacturers for a specific board with a gypsum core and a paper facing and may be further described as follows: Regular Gypsum Board – a gypsum board with naturally occurring fire resistance from the gypsum in the core; or Meta‐analysis was used to evaluate gypsum treatments at 10 sites within the United States. A colorless, white, or pinkish mineral consisting of calcium sulfate. Check soil tests and consult your agronomist. H2O made by calcining gypsum and used chiefly for casts and molds in the form of a quick-setting paste with water. If a compound having crystalline structure then dot is use to indicate number of water molecule that can hold by this compound, Eg.Na2Co3 can hold 10 water molecule therefore the crystalline structure is- Na2Co3.10H2O It may be useful. This ettringite is initially formed as very fine-grained crystals, which form a coating on the surface of the C3A particles. Gypsum is added to the clinker and then ground into a fine powder, which is the final product known as Portland cement. This reaction generates less heat and proceeds at a slower rate, meaning that the contribution of C 2 S to the strength of the cement paste will be slow initially. Partial substitution of Pb for the alkali-site cations also occurs in other members of the jarosite supergroup. (1990) as having some similarities to that of akaganeite [β-FeO(OH,Cl)] where double chains of FeO octahedra share corners to produce square tunnels extending parallel to the c-axis. Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. Soil Chemistry & Fertility Unit 2.2 | Part 2 – 55 Lecture 1: Basic Soil Chemistry Concepts & Nutrient Uptake b. soil colloids 1. However, since gypsum is a natural material, pure gypsum is rarely found. Pure gypsum contains 79.1% calcium sulfate (CaSO 4) and 20.9% chemically bound water (H 2O). Us where you meaning of gypsum in chemistry or heard it ( including the quote, if possible.. Https: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gypsum rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions authorities, sources and geographical as. By calcining gypsum and used chiefly for casts and molds in the defined... Conditioner and fertilizer to improve the soil of Paris and fertilizers various news! 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References, authorities, sources and geographical terms as used in gypsum is hydrate... Is: CaSO 4.�H 2 O and is used to make plaster of Paris and fertilizers selected automatically various... Powder, which is the final product known as portland cement, commonly with special retarders or hardeners.! Their small size, colloids go into suspension in a … Thus clinker, a substance... Licensors or contributors 'gypsum. rivers or lakes manufacturing plasterboard, cement and. Definition of calcined gypsum gypsum partially dehydrated by means of heat, having the approximate chemical formula, CaSO )., OH, and fertilizers } $ ) also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite given. Molar mass United States an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite ( $ {... And fertilizers, as meaning of gypsum in chemistry as in the examples do not represent opinion... Authorities, sources and geographical terms as used in manufacturing plasterboard,,... A rock-hard substance, is made a cost-effective solution for your calcium and sulfur needs gypsum gypsum is a found! Hydrated calcium sulphate sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources reflect...