Pups are born with only a thin layer of blubber, but some species compensate for this with thick lanugos. The leopard seal uses it’s powerful jaws and razor sharp teeth to take a bite out of the orca’s massive body. This animal is easily distinguished from other extant pinnipeds by its larger size (exceeded only by the elephant seals), nearly hairless skin and long upper canines, known as tusks. These males commonly disrupt the copulations of their subordinates while they themselves can mount without inference.  Sea lions also conflict with fisherman since both depend on the same fish stocks. Walruses are known to nurse their young while at sea.  By holding their vibrissae steady, pinnipeds are able to maximize their detection ability. The Elephant seal then throws the Leopard seal.  The corneal epithelium is keratinized and the sclera is thick enough to withstand the pressures of diving. The elephant seal decides to go for a swim. Many docks are not designed to withstand the weight of several resting sea lions. They were also trapped in nets.  Their unique lungs have airways that are highly reinforced with cartilaginous rings and smooth muscle, and alveoli that completely deflate during deeper dives.  In 1971, a captive harbor seal named Hoover was trained to imitate human words, phrases and laughter. Larger animals like walruses and Steller sea lions are much less common.  As in most marine mammals, the kidneys are divided into small lobes and can effectively absorb water and filter out excess salt. , Some species have become so numerous that they conflict with local people. Steller sea lions have been recorded eating the pups of harbor seals, northern fur seals and California sea lions.  Some species may swallow stones or pebbles for reasons not understood. Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga.The two species, the northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) and the southern elephant seal (M. leonina), were both hunted to the brink of extinction by the end of the 19th century, but their numbers have since recovered.. Pups can get severely injured or killed during abductions.  By swinging their heads and necks, otariids create momentum while they are moving. Other species may wait days or weeks before entering the water.  Other man-made threats include habitat destruction by oil and gas exploitation, encroachment by boats, and underwater noise..  This is because it feeds on immobile bottom dwelling mollusks and hence does not need acute vision. The calls appear to contain prefixes and suffixes that serve to emphasize a message.  In modern culture, pinnipeds are thought of as cute, playful and comical figures. Their bodies are long and slender, and their heads appear to be almost too large for their serpent-like bodies. The Elephant seal goes back on the ice. This term typically excludes the walrus in everyday English.  The maritories of Weddell seal males can overlap with female breathing holes in the ice. Even those that live in warm or tropical climates live in areas that become cold and nutrient rich due to current patterns. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively short period of time while others take foraging trips at sea between nursing bouts. They recommend that the genus Arctocephalus be limited to Arctocephalus pusillus, and they resurrected the name Arctophoca for several species and subspecies formerly placed in Arctocephalus.  Walruses have pterygoid bones that are broad and thick, frontal bones that are V-shaped at the anterior end and calcaneuses with pronounced tuberosity in the middle.  Gestation in seals (including delayed implantation) typically lasts a year. , When swimming, otariids rely on their fore-flippers for locomotion in a wing-like manner similar to penguins and sea turtles. Then the Leopard seal bites the Elephant seal on the side, but the Elephant seal's blubber protected it. 260–68 in Perrin, Würsig and, Mann, J. , In some pinniped species, there appear to be geographic differences in vocalizations, known as dialects, while certain species may even have individual variations in expression. Its long-term memory allows it to perform a trick after at least three months of non-performance. The earliest fossil Pithanotaria, found in California, is dated to 11 mya. Like otariids, walruses are capable of turning their hind-flippers forward and can walk on land.  More than 50 fossil species have been described.  Species that live in polar habitats are vulnerable to the effects of recent and ongoing climate change, particularly declines in sea ice.  As with other diving mammals, pinnipeds have high amounts of hemoglobin and myoglobin stored in their blood and muscles. Hence polygyny tends to be weaker in ice-breeding species. The deep split between the lineages of Erignathus and Cystophora 17 Mya suggests that the phocines migrated eastward and northward from the North Atlantic. This "rhythmic entrainment" was previously seen only in humans, parrots and other birds possessing vocal mimicry. Several species had enlarged upper and lower canines. Pups are typically born in the spring and summer months and females bear almost all the responsibility for raising them.  One species, Enaliarctos emlongi, exhibited notable sexual dimorphism, suggesting that this physical characteristic may have been an important driver of pinniped evolution. Females can usually move freely between territories and males are unable to coerce them, but in some species such as the northern fur seal, South American sea lion and Australian sea lion, males can successfully contain females in their territories and prevent them from leaving.  Seals that breed on ice tend to have little or no sexual dimorphism. They have streamlined bodies and four limbs that are modified into flippers.  The age at which a pinniped sexually matures can vary from 2–12 years depending on the species. Wildlife managers have used various methods to control the animals, and some city officials have redesigned docks so they can better withstand use by sea lions.  One study of three species—the harbor seal, California sea lion and northern elephant seal—found that the sea lion was best adapted for airborne hearing, the harbor seal was equally capable of hearing in air and water, and the elephant seal was better adapted for underwater hearing. , Pinnipeds have lifespans averaging 25–30 years. Solitary foraging species usually exploit coastal waters, bays and rivers. Some calls have around seven rhythm patterns and are comparable to birdsongs and whalesongs.  Some species are capable of inflicting damaging wounds on their attackers with their sharp canines—an adult walrus is capable of killing polar bears. Most species inhabit coastal areas, though some travel offshore and feed in deep waters off oceanic islands. Otariids use their front limbs primarily to propel themselves through the water, while phocids and walruses use their hind limbs. The Elephant seal is unaware that a Leopard seal is hunting. Male walruses are known to produce distinctive gong-like calls when attempting to attract females.  The two extant elephant seal species diverged close to 4 mya after the Panamanian isthmus was formed. In addition, since ice is less stable than solid land, breeding sites change location each year, and males are unable to predict where females will stay during the breeding season. It is both the largest pinniped and member of the order Carnivora living today. , Commercial sealing was historically just as important an industry as whaling.  Organizations like PETA believe that such operations put the animals in danger. The meat, blubber and fur coats of pinnipeds have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. In between nursing bouts, the females leave their young onshore to forage at sea. 1005–1011 in Perrin, Würsig and, Lavigne, D. M. "Harp seal", pp.  In some species, including elephant seals and grey seals, males will try to lay claim to the desired females and defend them from rivals. These animals began exploiting more man-made environments, like docks, for haul-out sites. This dimorphism manifests itself in larger chests and necks, longer canines and denser fur—all traits that help males in fights for females. 881–884 in Perrin, Würsig and, Ralls, K.; Mesnick, S. "Sexual dimorphism", pp.  The mammary glands and genitals of pinnipeds can retract into the body.  Male otariids have strong barks, growls, roars and "whickers". The Leopard seal bites the Elephant seal on the tail, which was a good target for the start. Increased body weight in males increases the length of time they can fast due to the ample energy reserves stored in the blubber. Even though that these two animals will never meet each other in the wild.