The diagram of a grass plant in Fig. Turfgrass root growth is affected mainly by soil temperature, moisture, and oxygen. A mature, unmowed grass plant is composed of leaves, roots, stems, and a seed head. Figure 4. Figure 3. They have nodes, internodes, and scalelike leaves. Figure 1. Below ground is the network of plant material called the root. Although the crown is a stem, it does not look like the other stem types found in grasses. If you need to improve the look of your garden landscape and lawn, grass identification is essential to reseed the sod with a similar type of grass. Kentucky bluegrass is the premier sod grass in the northern U.S. because its rhizomes allow turf to 'knit' and hold together as the sod is cut, rolled, and lifted. It should be noted that Bermuda doesn’t tolerate shade well and you may have to plant a separate shade grass in those areas. 2). The basic requirements for germination of turfgrass seed are adequate moisture, favorable temperatures, and oxygen. inflorescence: flower head terminating the stem, consisting of a collection of flowers arranged on a common axis. Figure 8. Tillers increase the shoot density of lawns by replacing shoots that die in winter and summer. Water and nutrients are transported from root hairs to the interior of the root where special conducting tissues move water and nutrients to the leaves and shoots. Rhizomes. Soil moisture, generally, has the greatest effect on root depth. The optimum temperatures for root growth of cool-season grasses are lower than those for shoot growth. Root hairs number in the billions for a fully-developed root system and can greatly increase the amount of soil the roots contact. Grasses have leaves (blades that narrow into a sheath), a stem (culm), a collar region (where leaves attach to the stem), roots, tillers, and during the reproductive stage an inflorescence or seedhead develops. As the name implies, fescue blades have a very fine, almost hair-like texture and do well in … While there are only grass types, cool season and warm season grasses, there are thousand of grass species throughout the wold. On our tallgrass prairie here in Oklahoma there are several grasses which predominate. To see photographic examples of a term, click the camera next to it in the list of botanical terms. Behind the region of cell elongation, cells begin to develop into tissues that absorb water and nutrients. As a leaf begins to develop, it encloses the entire stem apex. Kathy also had heard: Sedges have edges, rushes are round, Grasses wear robes all the way to the ground. Spike is a seedhead in which one or more sessile spikelets are borne on the main axis (rachis). The seed head is the flowering part of the grass plant. As water is absorbed, the seed swells. Stem apex of grass plant. Ornamental Grasses are beautiful plants that add texture, color and movement to the landscape. Structures Used to Identify Grasses. All succeeding leaves follow the same route -- emerging from the growing point and growing upward within the folds of the older leaves. but it may grade from one form to another. The lemma is borne on the rachilla above the pair of glumes and the palea at the base of the flower or seed. The stem is another main part of a plant. The smooth area on the back side of the leaf where the blade and sheath meet is the collar. Grasses are examples of the following type of stem: (a) Suckers (b) Runners (c) Stolon (d) Rhizomes. 8. Herbaceous stems. A grass plant is composed of a root, a stem, leaves and a seed head. Figure 10. Internode: Area of the stem between two nodes. Figure 11. In shallow soils, root systems are shallow; in moist, deep, well-developed soils, root systems are deep. The spike-type seed head has spikelets that are borne directly on the main stem. Except for a few species, most grasses will come in only two colors: green and tan. The amount of water the roots absorb will depend primarily on the number of roots, the depth of rooting, and the amount of water in the soil. Stolons grow above-ground and form nodes which give rise to new plants.