To recover from training rotations requires the deliberate deadlining and coding out of equipment, processes that, for a host of good reasons, require time. This regulation applies to all directorates, special staff sections, major subordinate commands, tenants, and But overall, the Army had “met or exceeded” the goal of 66 percent of its brigade combat teams (BCT) reporting the “highest readiness levels for seven consecutive quarterly reporting periods.”1. endstream endobj 1636 0 obj <. Publication Number: AE REG 600-8-101 Publication Date: 6/9/2008 Title: Army in Europe Soldier Readiness Program Status: CURRENT Unit of Issue (U/I): WEB Security Classification: Agency: USAREUR Proponent: Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, G1 Prop Office Symbol: PIN: 1000325 Web Footnote: Authorization for Obsolescence: 6/9/2008 The frequency and high stakes of USRs demand of battalion and brigade staffs days of data compilation that might otherwise be spent planning training. “Mutual trust” fails. § 117. Check it out. The need for quantifying readiness will never go away, nor should it. Less frequent reports would reduce the pressure on leaders to prioritize readiness metrics over deliberate training progressions. Readiness, it says, is the ability of the Armed Forces to carry out the president’s National Security Strategy, the secretary of defense’s defense planning guidance, and the chairman of the Joint Chief’s National Military Strategy. And all of the above empower leaders and soldiers within reporting units. Army Command Policy contains guidance on Army Family readiness at para 5-2, page 48 Army Regulation 600-20 (dated 24 July 2020) Not only does this produce an inaccurate report, but it also confuses maintenance. As Leonard Wong and Stephen Gerras wrote in the 2015 report Lying to Ourselves: Dishonesty in the Army Profession (from which this piece draws much), “with such a strong self-image and the reinforcing perspective of a mostly adoring American society,” Army leaders often “respond with indignation at any whiff of deceit.”20 Discussions thus falter before they begin as all retreat to their respective corners. A cannibalized high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) sits next to other HMMWVs awaiting repair. The system of readiness reporting dismisses individual judgment in favor of metrics so much that all agency, informed by integrity or any other Army value, dissipates. Amidst all this short-termism, “recovery” becomes something of a four-letter word. This is a revised regulation. Permitting divisions or brigades some role in the authorship of their MTOEs would better marry MTOE materiel with the needs of the unit. Military Operations . This is understandable given the size of the force and the degrees of separation between everyday training and TRADOC. Army Readiness Guidance 2016-2017; Army Regulation 525-30, Army Strategic Readiness; Related STAND-TO! Goal displacement abounds in the measured area of equipment on-hand (S-level) as well. The DRRS-A readiness data in turn comes from unit status reports (USR) provided by BCTs’ constituent battalions. As the organization solicits input and metrics of performance acquires meaning, work regains its esteem and morale increases. As George Kennan wrote in 1958 when discussing the expanding administrative state and its managerial malaise, The premium of the individual employee will continue to lie not in boldness, not in individuality, not in imagination, but rather in the cultivation of that nice mixture of noncontroversialness and colorless semicompetence that corresponds most aptly to the various banal distinctions of which, alone, the business machine is capable.21. : Army Readiness Guidance; Subscribe to STAND-TO! The above temporal fixes reduce short-termism. This reporting labyrinth obscures what anyone who has compiled a USR knows: unit status reports are deeply flawed. Robert K. Merton, a founding father of sociology, defined goal displacement as when “an instrumental value becomes a terminal value.”11 Professors W. Keith Warner and A. Eugene Havens elaborated in a seminal 1968 article that among goal displacement’s chief causes were “records and reports submitted to other echelons of the organization or to the sponsors, the public, or clients. Subject memorandum directed the U.S. Army Concepts Analysis Agency to develop an expert system to advise on the assignment of equipment readiness codes (ERC). The goal of reporting a healthy pacer OR rate has displaced the goal of being ready. In theory, MTOE captures all that a unit needs to fulfill its mission. United States Department of Army Family Morale Welfare and Recreation Command: Lynn McCollum, Director, Family Programs Kathy Quinn Ledbetter, Family Readiness Division Chief Peter Hepp, Social Science Program Specialist The issue is that pacer OR rates are poor indicators of readiness and not just because serviceability rates lend themselves to manipulation. These monthly campaigns see much-needed equipment transferred off the property books while supply teams bloat books with obsolete or unused equipment in order to meet MTOE quotas. Most obviously, the fragility and frequency of the USR discourages innovation, or “disciplined initiative,” and its twin, “risk acceptance,” that might otherwise increase readiness. AR 210-22, Private Organizations on Department of the Army Installations [6/8/2005] This Army Regulation replaces AR 210-1, which was rescinded in 1998. The Army would thus have to maintain a high but passable bar for what equipment supports only existing mission essential tasks. 3. The accessibility of hard numbers and their simplicity render the military’s sprawling bureaucracy manageable. Yet another painful example of goal displacement induced by USR involves what regulation calls “pacing items.” AR 220-1 defines pacing items (colloquially called “pacers”) as “major weapon systems, aircraft, and other equipment items that are central to the organization’s ability to perform its designated mission.”13 A pacer for a medical unit might be a field litter ambulance; for a cavalry squadron, it might be its anti-tank missile systems and the vehicles on which they are mounted. 1 Army Methodology for Overall Unit Readiness Assessments (Figure from Army Regulation 220-1, Army Unit Status Reporting and Force Registration—Consolidated Policies, 15 April 2010, https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/r220_1.pdf) (Photo courtesy of J. VanDomelen, https://blogs.mentor.com/jvandomelen/blog/2011/12/28/power-problem-what-now/), From March 2018 to November 2019, the Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General conducted an audit of the U.S. Army’s active component readiness. Short-termism similarly dominates the measured area of equipment on-hand. In 2011, Congress established the readiness reporting requirement and defined readiness in the first paragraph of 10 U.S.C. Maybe some units aren’t aware of the regulation because weapons aren’t being transported the right way. 23 October 2019 . Antiquated encryption tape readers remain while desperately needed high frequency radios or infrared optics disappear. How to negotiate a balance between the dual risks of harmful standardization and unmanageable chaos is explored deeply in the book Seeing Like a State by James C. Scott. It also enjoys a vociferous booster in the Government Accountability Office (GAO). Any system “shall measure in an objective, accurate, and timely manner.”4 The verb of choice in this sliver of code is “measure,” trotted out no fewer than seven times over two paragraphs. A leader with more time in the driver’s seat similarly plans for the longer term. It is the work of real readiness. Pacers are also often far from the only equipment essential to fulfill a mission, or they are so numerous that each individual pacer has less impact on the mission than scarcer nonpacer equipment types. Often, under pressure to produce short-term results, commanders undermine or outright dismantle systems designed to sustain readiness in the long view because those systems do not move at the speed of the USR. This practice survives because few commanders command long enough to reckon with the fall out of this behavior. Office of the Secretary of Defense, “Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America” (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2018), 7, accessed 24 June 2020, Stephen Townsend et al., “Reinvigorating the Army’s Approach to Command and Control: Leading by Mission Command (Part 2),”. Battalions, desirous of reporting themselves ready, consequently prioritize pacer maintenance. It importantly also reduces the opacity of the military to oversight entities like the House Armed Services Committee’s Subcommittee on Readiness. The USR and its pruning voraciously consumes another resource that serves a battalion’s mission: leaders’ and soldiers’ time. The top priority for Army leadership is readiness. Units delay reporting because it reduces the amount of time the vehicle is deadlined, thereby decreasing the likelihood it is deadlined during a USR reporting window. Fortunately, organizational theory bypasses these obstacles convincingly. To view Army Regulation 220-1, Army Unit Status Reporting and Force Registration—Consolidated Policies, visit https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/r220_1.pdf. The Army has undertaken a variety of efforts since 2016 to prepare for potential large-scale combat operations against major adversaries. When handled properly, issues identified during recovery take weeks if not months to resolve. It is not because of the individual but rather because of the devaluation of the individual that such perversions of organizational behavior occur. A maintenance section in an armored formation, for example, might report only a single inoperable tank despite several others being broken. To close this gap, a regular (perhaps biennial) reassessment that solicits division or even brigade input regarding what ought to be considered a pacer would make pacer OR rates more meaningful. This distrust is not lost on those soldiers, and it invites them to respond in kind. This warping of organizational behavior is the inevitability of Muller’s metric fixation. Enlarge the figure. This process cuts out the ordering of new parts altogether. The reform, not the scrapping, of reporting metrics and structure, promises a reduction in goal displacement, short-termism, innovation aversion, time burdens, and degradation of work. The time burden shrinks as reporting grows less frequent. Army OneSource is a single web portal providing important, credible and up-to-date information in one location for Army Soldiers and Family Members to access at any time of day, regardless of component or geographical location. Untested methods, whether a change to motor pool management or an alternate approach to equipment distribution, enjoy a slim chance of fruition as they threaten USR calculus month to month. The Army defines readiness as the capability of its forces to conduct the full range of military operations, including the defeat of all enemies regardless of the threats they pose. 10 U.S.C. * Establishes the family readiness group as an official Army program, established in accordance with AR 600-20, to provide activities and support that encourages self … Journal of Military Learning Submission Guide, Future Warfare Writing Program Submission Guidelines, Military History Instruction Support Team, 290 Stimson Ave. Implied in the hyperquantification and rigidity of the USR is an organizational distrust of the reporting unit, and therefore the soldiers who constitute it. AR 525–30 Army Strategic Readiness This new Department of the Army regulation, dated 3 June 2014-- o Institutionalizes the fundamentals of Army Strategic Readiness (throughout). Just as reporting units have unique insight into what equipment most contributes to their mission in the case of pacers, so too do they have a strong understanding of what type and quantity of equipment they use to fulfill their missions. The various forms of appeal, whether an “operational needs statement” or a “reclamation,” prove so cumbersome and lengthy that staffs rarely pursue them except in the direst cases. Because maintenance sections are often stretched for time, vehicles that cannot roll or start at all are reported for weeks if not months as serviceable simply because their issues have not yet been diagnosed. Only strict standardization renders the force legible, whether to the Pentagon or to Congress. As mentioned, the math at face value is straightforward. Such cannibalized vehicles or other pieces of equipment are sometimes used to skew unit readiness reporting requirements and mask unit logistical and materiel deficiencies. 2 The average number of limited duty days per injury was thirty seven. This adverse effect of metric fixation runs precisely contrary to the stated 2018 National Defense Strategy, which emphasizes a pivot toward long-term readiness.15. So, instead of stacking structural incentives impossibly high, diametrically opposing the integrity of the individual, and then blaming the individual for systemic failure, the resolution lies in structural reform. Army Regulation 525–93 . Rather than empowering them to “subjectively upgrade” overall readiness ratings (as AR 220-1 does now), which obscures rather than resolves metric fixation, reporting units ought have a larger role in the selection of what metrics capture readiness on the ground.22, Figure 3. Across all types of equipment, leadership rushes repair jobs or seeks out the easiest fix, undermining long-term serviceability and sometimes further damaging the equipment in the process. Of the negative consequences Muller inventories, the USR most obviously induces the following in reporting battalions across the Army: goal displacement, short-termism, time burdens, innovation aversion, and degradation of work.10. The commanders and staff chase readiness as the USR measures it, often at the cost of actual readiness. This regulation prescribes the purpose, policies, procedures, and responsi- bilities for planning, preparing, executing, and assessing Army Strategic and Opera- tional Readiness. 2. Put another way, it promises a reinvigoration of mission command. There is no great advantage to monthly reports but many costs, only some of which have been discussed. Soldiers must inspect equipment, mechanics troubleshoot it, and clerks order repairs. It provides policies and procedures for private organizations operation on Department of the Army installations. This way, the digital database through which parts are ordered reports only one broken tank, instead of five or six per company. readiness in accordance with the requirements stipulated in Army Regulation (AR) 220-1 (Army Unit Status Reporting and Force Registration - Consolidated Policies), and the Leader’s Guide to Objective Assessment of Training Proficiency.17 The Army G-3/5/7 published the Leader's Guide in 2017 as the interim authority for CUSR Objective T- The U.S. Army has rewritten Field Manual 7-22, Physical Readiness Training as FM 7-22, Holistic Health and Fitness (H2F). According to The Army Strategy, the Army projects that it will reach its readiness goals by 2022, at which point its priority is expected to shift to modernization. o Contains extensive information regarding Army Strategic Readiness and how it is reported, prepared, reviewed, and submitted (throughout). The following argument represents that single, tactical perspective on the problem, but I derive confidence in it from lengthy discussions and review with tactical and operational leaders across every type of BCT in multiple combatant commands. The purpose of recovery becomes to report it complete, and all the while, units grow weaker. These materials were developed based on Army regulation and guidance, and research on separation and combat deployments. Goal displacement in the measured area of equipment readiness (R-level) occurs as battalions grow more concerned with reporting equipment serviceable, such as vehicles, than with fixing equipment. A less frequent USR disrupts long-term planning less frequently. Related to goal displacement is short-termism. To reduce goal displacement, one must close the gap between the stated goal of readiness and the metrics used to measure it. Leaders must document catastrophic damage, officers investigate it, logisticians review it, and property book officers direct replacements. Recall that S-level measures what equipment units have on hand against what the MTOE dictates they should have. Short-termism. The dearth of innovation at the top of the Army’s food chain has received due attention, perhaps most famously from former Lt. Col. Paul Yingling in a 2007 article.18 But metric fixation so deadens innovation at the tactical level that it is no surprise little rises to the level of strategy. The massive effort units expend to reach the highest levels of readiness on USRs would therefore more efficiently ready them. Lastly, lengthening the periods that commanders command to thirty-six months or longer has the potential to preempt the short-termism USRs engender. The audit’s resultant report was, on the whole, positive. The perversion of maintenance that results is a familiar story to anyone who has worked in an Army motor pool. Muller has summarized the damage done by quarterly earnings “hysteria” to long-term strategy in the financial sector, and the same basic critique applies to the Army.25 Less frequent reports would permit units some actual recovery periods between training events without the disincentive of ugly USR reports. The ranking in each category is uniform and numeric: a level “1” (such as an R-1) indicates the highest readiness level in that measured area, and a “4” the lowest (such as R-4).7, Figure 1. Search: View Section 508 Version. As the metrics employed by USR gravitate closer to actual drivers of readiness, the risk of the former displacing the latter would necessarily decrease. Contact Us | 913-684-2127. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 66027 REAL: Readiness Essentials for Army Leaders: This is a collaboration of efforts and best practices from SFRG Leaders, Family Readiness Support Assistants, Command Teams and Army Community Service throughout the Army, to include active duty, National Guard, and Reserve. åܛw眉?+¶œs.µƒ¡£¡ˆ: l&° ”àè #0)‚HÂccMý40A@åfbpH¿fàa`Ú¨3ÁrÚ'Ï-i ¡l÷ŸàÈáVÒ¹Á2@š‡Áñ*XœùªfX±'@€ Úlz Army AL&T editors discussed readiness with Dillard and Jones in a July 11 phone interview.Dillard referred to "Army Regulation [AR] 220-1, Army Unit … With the exception of the T-level, the same basic math governs all: divide what the reporting unit has (whether number of medics or number of serviceable grenade launchers) by what that unit ought to have. 2. 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